Types and Symptoms of Common Psychiatric Disorder

Types and Symptoms of Common Psychiatric Disorder

by Dr Sagnik Mukherjee

Posted on 4th December, 2023 at 6:08:10 PM

Every person has a unique behaviour. Yet some of us show peculiar or abnormal behaviour that disturbs both the individual and others. Such a state of mind is called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder. This medical condition is diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional. No one can declare a person to be mentally ill unless he is declared so by a psychiatrist.

Most of us may suffer from a mental disorder even without knowing it. The stress or the lifestyle pattern in our daily life might have affected us without even our knowledge. Primary care doctors who treat clinical conditions will not be able to detect these mental health disorders. Only a certified specialist with advanced training in psychiatric care can detect and treat such mental illnesses. 

Types of psychiatric illness and their associated symptoms

Anxiety disorders

Here, the person responds to certain situations with extreme worry or fear. They show symptoms of increased heart rate and profuse sweating. The person is said to have an anxiety disorder if he is not able to control their emotions and allows the disorder to disturb both work and life. Anxiety disorders are of several types like generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, etc.

Depressive disorders

A depressed person might experience feelings of hopelessness. His routine activities of life are disrupted due to fatigue. Major depression often called clinical depression may lead to suicidal thinking also. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder affects women predominantly. Treatment of postpartum depression and perinatal depression must be done only by qualified psychiatrists.

Mood disorders

Common mood disorders are characterised by extreme mood swings. Here the person has prolonged feelings of sadness or happiness or fluctuates between extreme sadness and happiness. Bipolar disorder, cyclothymic disorder, etc belong to this type of mental illness.

Psychotic disorders

Here, the patient’s thinking is distorted and unrealistic. The 2 main psychotic symptoms are auditory hallucinations and delusions. Schizophrenia is a classic example of a psychotic disorder. 

Obsessive-compulsive disorders

In this case, the patient has obsessive thoughts about certain things and does some actions repeatedly. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms include restless and repeated actions or rituals like washing hands, locking, cleaning, etc. Examples are hair-pulling disorder, hoarding disorder, etc. 

Dissociative disorders

In this type of mental disorder, the person dissociates himself from his actual identity and present memories. The symptoms include a sense of loss or detachment from the actual surroundings, not recognizing people, confused thinking, etc. Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, etc.

Traumatic disorders

These mental disorders affect the patient usually after he/she has experienced major trauma like physical assault or sexual abuse. Or a life-changing event like accidents, loss of a close one, etc. The symptoms include intense fear, numbness, etc. Post-traumatic stress disorder falls in this category.

Personality disorder

Disturbing patterns in a person’s personality reflect personality behavior. The symptoms affect the daily routine and social relationships of the patient. Examples include borderline personality disorder, histrionic disorder, schizoid personality disorder, etc

Impulse control disorders and addictive disorders

A person with an impulse control disorder is unable to control his impulses like setting fire to things, stealing, etc. In an addiction disorder, the person is addicted to something and cannot be without it like alcohol, recreational drugs, gambling, etc. Addictions may be caused by drug abuse, or alcohol abuse. Both disorders need prolonged treatment from a mental health care provider as they destroy relationships and harm others.

Eating orders

Eating orders usually evolve due to an inner mental health condition like low self-esteem, social neglect, stress, etc. Psychiatric symptoms usually involve food like overeating or undereating. Eating disorders include bulimia, anorexia, binge eating, etc. By seeking mental health services at the right time, such conditions can be cured before they affect the patient’s physical health.

Effective treatments for psychological disorders

A psychiatrist uses a wide range of techniques to cure mental illnesses. He may use antidepressant medications, psychotropic medications, antipsychotic drugs, mood stabilizers, etc to reduce the symptoms. Intensive treatments include electroconvulsive therapy, brain stimulation, etc. 

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